The Eastern Catholic Church

We welcome you to discover the well-kept secret of the Christian world: the Eastern Catholic Church. Although we are an ancient church who has maintained Scriptural Traditions, we may be unknown to you. Yet, we are in tune with the problems and spiritual needs of today.

We are not your traditional normal dead and dry Church: you do not have to cut off your head not turn off your brain in order to become a Christian. We believe that you and I need to work out our salvation daily. The church is here to assist and support you prayerfully - -not dominate you and your life.

We believe that each one of us have God given unique given talents, abilities, and gifts of the Holy Spirit to build up the growing Body of Christ. You are needed and wanted!

1. History
2. Beliefs
3. Purpose
4. Membership
5. Organization
6. Worship
7. Important Dates


This Aramaic speaking remnant of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church came into existence immediately after the Resurrection and the Ascension of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ and on the Feast of Pentecost…through the missionary efforts of the Apostle Saint Thomas (Mar Toma) and the Apostle Saint Jude Thaddeus (Mar Addai), the church was brought to the city of Edessa which is located in the north-west of Mesopotamia and established in Persia in 35 A.D. There many believed upon the Lord Jesus Christ. Through the efforts of these Chaldean and Assyrian converts, the Gospel spread among the Persians. Later, both Saint Thomas and the Apostle Saint Peter (Mar Patros) came there. You shall find the reference of this Church in Saint Peter’s epistle “…I give my regards to the Church which is in Babylon…” (1 Peter 5:13).

Through the power of the Holy Spirit, the church began to grow and to flourish. Travelling from Edessa, the Apostle Saint Thomas (Mar Toma) continued to preach the Gospel in Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the capitol of the Parthian Empire and later the Persian Empire. In about 52 A.D., Saint Thomas reached India. In 72 A.D., Saint Thomas the Apostle, having established the church in India suffered martyrdom for the Holy Faith. This Church in India has always been considered an Apostolic Church, having been established by one of the Twelve Apostles. His spiritual descendants eventually brought the Christian Faith and Church into China, Burma, Tibet, Korea, and Japan. At one time in its history, the church was the largest church of all of the Christian churches in the world with over 500 dioceses in China alone. Then there were subsequent periods of great persecutions that led to its near destruction. It gave more martyrs to the Christian church than all other branches of the Christian churches combined (49 million martyrs).

It has been known by various names throughout its long history: The Church of the East (hence: Eastern Catholic –since the 7th Century), the Persian Church, the Indian Church, the Mar Toma (Thoma) Church, The Mar Thoma Christian Church, the East Syrian Church, the Holy Apostolic-Catholic Church of the East (Chaldean-Syrian), the Chaldean-Syrian Church of the East, etc.

Throughout its long history, the Church has remained orthodox and patriarchal (in its worship, ecclesiastical form of government, polity, etc. not Papal (not under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church, the Patriarch of the West in Rome). This jurisdiction remains autocephalous (self-governing) to this day.

In 1902, the Metropolitan of India, with the encouragement of the Anglican Church missionaries from England, desired to bring this ancient church heritage into the west. A metropolitan was consecrated to do so. Through these efforts, in 1934, the Eastern Catholic Church came to these United States in the ministry of His Beatitude, Metropolitan Dr. Mar David of Edessa, O.H.S. (nee: Seine Durchlaucht, Prinz Stanislaus, Graf von Czernowitz). The present Metropolitan is His Beatitude, Metropolitan Dr. Mar Mikhael of Edessa, O.S.J. (Seine Durchlaucht, Fürst Heinrich XXVI Reuß).

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The beliefs and practice of the church is Orthodox. The theology of the church is identical to the early Church Fathers. She holds to the doctrines of the First two Ecumenical Councils and its Creeds, affirms the virgin birth of Jesus Christ, His incarnation, and sacrificial atonement on the cross, His death, His resurrection, and ascension into heaven, and the Holy Trinity. Since the church was in the Persian Empire, it was not notified of the next five ecumenical councils. However, in 1952, the Synod of Bishops accepted the spirit of the theological decrees of the third through the seventh ecumenical councils providing these decrees did not violate Holy Scriptures. The Holy Scriptures of the First and Second Covenants (the Old and the New Testaments) or the Bible are the highest authority for the Church. The Holy Scriptures are translated directly from Aramaic and are commonly referred to as “The Peshitta” or “the Simple Truth.” The Peshitta is still the standard Holy Scriptures for millions of Chaldean-Syrian (parent church), Maronite, Chaldean Roman Catholic, Jacobite, and Assyrian Christians. The Oral and Sacred Traditions of the Church as well as the Apostolic Fathers are utilised to properly interpret the Holy Scriptures.

As part of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, we stand on the Faith in Jesus Christ as the Incarnate Son of God, on the Holy Scriptures as the divinely inspired Word of God, written by holy men under the direction and inspiration of the Holy Spirit, containing all things necessary for salvation.

We stand for the worship of God as He commanded through Christ, Who is the Way, the Truth, and the Life.

We believe we offer through our Eastern Catholic heritage to all who are looking for Salvation through Christ, who desire to participate in the historic Holy Mysteries (Sacraments), and who desire to hear, believe, and walk in the Gospel of Salvation, the opportunity to do so in the fullness of joy and the freedom of the Holy Spirit.

We believe that the primary objective of the Church is to glorify God and His Scriptural Teachings, not the private opinions of men.

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Our purpose is to celebrate the joy and the power of the Holy Resurrection of our Lord, God, and Saviour Jesus Christ by participating in the Holy Eucharist (in making joyful praise and worship unto God, by preaching the Word of God, by administering the Holy Mysteries (Sacraments), by praying for one another, by visiting the sick, by giving Christian charity, by studying the Holy Scriptures, and by promulgating the Christian Faith for the molding of godly lives in ourselves, our families, our society, and our country. We believe in the Charismatic Gifts and Ministries of the Holy Spirit, as they were manifested in the Apostolic Church and that they should be practised, developed, and encouraged in our congregations today. This jurisdiction entered the Charismatic Renewal in 1941.

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When the autocephalous or self-governing ecclesiastical jurisdiction was established, its ecclesiastical provincial boundaries included: North, Central, and South America, and the Far East (Korea, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan). In 1987, the Vicar-diocese of Germany requested to become apart of and was accepted into this Metropolia (province). His Beatitude, Metropolitan Dr. Mar David of Edessa, O.H.S. chose not to limit this church to its ethnic origins but to open the church to all Christian peoples seeking the historic faith, sacraments, traditions, and the move of the Holy Spirit.

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The Eastern Catholic Church is governed according to the Holy Scriptures in the Apostolic model: bishops, priests, and deacons. There is only one bishop who holds the authority within the church, i.e.: the Metropolitan. The Metropolitan, as the Primate of Chief Hierarch, governs the Synod of Bishops. All bishops are vicar-bishops to the Office of the Metropolitan See. Together, they comprise the Holy Synod of Bishops. The Metropolitan in an autocephalous jurisdiction is the “Holder of All” as is the Catholicos-Patriarch is within his own jurisdiction. The church throughout its long history has maintained the Order of Deaconess (which at one times existed in the Roman Catholic and all of the Eastern Orthodox Churches).

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The Eastern Catholic Church is sacramental in its worship, which resembles the other Eastern Orthodox Churches (Antiochian, Greek, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, etc.). The centre of its liturgical life is the Quiddisha Qurbana or the Holy and Divine Liturgy. We utilise the oldest liturgy in the Christian Church: the Liturgy of Saint James the Apostle, historically referred to as the Liturgy of Mar Mari and Mar Addai. It contains three different Canons which are utilised during the yearly calendar. It is based, as all liturgy is based, upon the Tabernacle Worship, prescribed by God the Father to Moses. In the Quiddisha Qurbana, there is the Liturgy of the Word (Catechumens) and the Liturgy of the Eucharist. Leavened bread and wine are utilised for the Holy Communion. The faithful receive, in Holy Communion, the divine presence of Christ’s body and blood, under the appearances of bread and wine. The Holy Liturgy can only be celebrated by an ordained priest in canonical relationship with his vicar-bishop and metropolitan.

Both the traditional Quiddisha Qurbana and the Charismatic Liturgy are celebrated in most parishes of this jurisdiction. In numerous locations, joint parishes (both traditional and charismatic parishes) share the same physical location, i.e. sanctuary).

The Holy Mysteries (Sacraments) include the following: Holy Baptism and Chrismation (Confirmation) – these two mysteries are never separated, Holy Confession or Absolution (which also occurs during the Holy Liturgy and individually in cases of serious sin), Holy Orders which effects all the other Holy Mysteries, Holy Matrimony, and Holy Unction (Anointing of the Sick). The Sign of the Cross has also historically been considered a Holy Mystery or Sacrament.

Marriages are usually celebrated within the Quiddisha Qurbana of Holy Matrimony. The Anointing of the sick may occur after the Quiddisha Qurbana or at any scheduled service, as well as in hospitals or in the sick person’s home.

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Important Dates

The Important Dates of History of the Church, Church Synods, Church Councils, Decrees and Canon Laws of the Church of the East
(Assyrian and Chaldean-Syrian) ©

The following are Excerpts from “The Timeline of the Eastern Church History” by Dr. Kathryn Tsai by Divine Ascent Press. She includes all branches of the early church (Oriental Orthodox: Coptic, Syrian, and Ethiopian Orthodox), the Orthodox Churches, the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of the East. We also collated the important dates documented by His Grace, Metropolitan Dr. Mar Aprem of India in his various textbooks (while he was under the Patriarchate of His Holiness, Patriarch Mar Addai of Baghdad (The Ancient Church of the East) as well as when the Metropolitan changed jurisdiction to be under Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV (Assyrian Church of the East)). We also included the significant events of our own jurisdiction as well. Dr. Tsai documents not only the important events occurring in the entire Sacramental Churches (East and West); she also included a section on “Brief Timeline of the Eastern Christianity in Central Asia and China. We are grateful that she included a great deal of the significant events occurring in the Church of the East (Holy Apostolic-Catholic Church of the East (Assyrian and Chaldean-Syrian), the Coptic Orthodox, etc. She ends her time line at 1025 A.D.

We also included supportive data from “The History of Christianity I Asia Volume 1, Beginnings to 1500” by Samuel Hugh Moffett.

This information should be well studied and available to all of our clergy and laity. Our jurisdiction was incorporated in 1934; the jurisdiction, depending upon the individual State (U.S.A.) Province, and countries in order to avoid conflict with any other jurisdiction, utilised the following incorporated names: The Holy Apostolic-Catholic Churches of the East (Chaldean-Syrian), The Eastern Catholic Archdiocese (Chaldean-Syrian), The Eastern Catholic Metropolia (Chaldean-Syrian), and the Eastern Catholic Church (Chaldean-Syrian). The earliest incorporation utilsing “Eastern Catholic” was in 1952 A.D.

This jurisdiction maintains its own consortium of colleges, university affiliations, seminaries, and foundations to carry out its mandated ministries. The reference “Eastern Catholic” was utilised in the 7th Century onwards. Since Vatican Council II, many of the Byzantine Rites also known as Uniate Rites (in union with Rome) stopped utilsing their canonical reference “Catholic Eastern Churches” and suddenly are utilsing our incorporated and historic reference and name of “Eastern Catholic” in order to have a similar designation as all the Orthodox Churches utilise: “Eastern Orthodox Churches.

Date Data
50 A.D.

Mar Thomas the Apostle travelled to India.

65 A.D.

Mar Peter the Apostle crucified in Rome.

67 A.D.

Mar Paul the Apostle beheaded in Rome.

150 A.D.

In Edessa, Syriac (a form of Aramaic) becomes the official liturgical language of the Church of the East, and it eventually reaches and is utilised in India and China.

189 A.D.

Under Pope Victor, the first African and Latin speaking Pope, the beginning of the Roman Church claiming authority over all the churches outside of Rome.

286 A.D. First persecution of the Christians in Persia
320 A.D. The Cathedral Church in Edessa completed.
325 A.D.

First Ecumenical Council called by the Emperor Constantine in Nicaea; Bishop John of Persia attended and participated in the Council. The Council fixed the method of the reckoning of Holy Pascha for the entire church.

400 A.D. The Syriac “Doctrine of Addai” put in its present form.
410 A.D.

Synod of Isaac in Seleucia, often called the First General Synod of the Church of the East accepted the creed and canons of the Council of Nicaea (first time the Church of the East accepts a Creed, the offices of bishop, chor-episcopa (bishop’s assistant), presbyter, reader, deacon, exorcist, deaconess, singer, and acolytes.).

420 A.D. The Synod of Yaballaha 2nd General Synod. Bishopric of Rewardashir (in Persia) raised to Metropolinate with responsibility for the Church in India.
424 A.D. The Persian Synod under Catholicos Dadiso, 3rd General Synod, demonstrated its independence from the Church in the West. The Catholicos is declared equal to the patriarchs with all the rights of a patriarch. This was in no way a schism, since the Church faith remained the same as the first two synods was declared.
431 A.D.

Council of Ephesus (Church of the East not present/not notified): This council affirmed the term “Theotokos” or “God-bearer” or “Mother of God,” of the first Four Ecumenical Council. The Church of the East rejected this one only. The Church of the East utilised the reference “Christokos” to refer to Mary (Miriam) the Mother of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

451 A.D. Council of Chalcedon. Pope Leo of Rome refuses to accept Canon 28.
455 A.D.

Persian embassy reaches Ch’an-an, capitol of China

484 A.D. Council of Beit Lapet called to give honour to Mar Theodore of Mopsuestia and approved married bishops.
486 A.D. Synod of Acacius in Seleucia-Ctesiphon in Persia, 4th general synod, specifically affirms the right of all Christians to marry, including priests and bishops.
488 A.D. Solemn blessing of Holy Chrism. Introduction of the recitation of the Nicene Creed into the Liturgy.
489 A.D. The School of the Persians in Edessa is closed due to its strong support for the Antiochene Christology of Mar Theodore of Mopsuestia. Because of the separate life of the Church of the East, location, it was often mistakenly called the “Nestorian Church”.
498 A.D. The 5th general synod, the Church of the East moves father away from the Byzantine West. The Catholicos is now officially known as patriarch, with all that this implies.
501 A.D. The Book of Apocalypse translated into Syriac.
525 A.D. Rebuilding after the flood in Edessa, leads to the discovery of the “Icon not made of hands” hidden in a niche above the gate. From this tie forward, images of the face of our Lord Jesus Christ assume frontal aspect seen in all icons.
537 A.D. The screen with three doors becomes the Iconostasis (use of rod and curtains). A solid icon is utilised in the 14th-15th Century.
550 A.D. The Church in India is well established with its own hierarchy.  The Persians and the Syrians recognise the Church of India having independence and Apostolic origin.
628 A.D. Catholicos-Patriarch Yeshiva II established the Metropolitan for the Church in India, thus giving it independence from the Persian Church. He further sent Christian missionaries to China.
635 A.D. Alopen, Syrian Christians of the Church of the East arrive in China; they establish the first monastery in China in 638 A.D. (In the book “The Jesus Sutras” by Martin Palmer demonstrates the use of Icons in the Church of the East in China with pictures of the Icons found in the first monastery.)
638 A.D. The Holy Scriptures and the “Didache” translated into Chinese; first monastery located in Ch’ang-an, capitol of China. The Emperor of China, Tai-tsung of the Tang Dynasty, issued an edict of toleration for Christianity. Icons were utilised from the very beginning by the Persian monks.
650 A.D. Catholics-Patriarch Yeshiva II made India a separate province.
*1321 A.D. Roman Catholic Dominican priest, Father Jordanus visited India.
*1330 A.D. Pope John XXII of Rome sent a Bull to him to establish the Roman Church in India.
*1508 A.D. Cochin falls under Portuguese rule.
*1599 A.D. The notorious Synod of Diamper (Dayaamperoor)—origin of the Romo-Syrians in India.
*1795 A.D. Cochin is captured by the British.
*1836 A.D. Reform in the Jacobite Church, origin of the Mar Thoma Syrian Church in India.
*1864 A.D. Metropolitan Mar Abdisho (Thondanatta) is consecrated for India. (2nd tenure began in 1882 A.D.)
*1886 A.D.

Romo-Syrian hierarchy is established in Trichur and Kottayam.

*1889 A.D. Metropolitan Mar Basilius consecrated by Metropolitan Mar Abdisho in India.
*1902 A.D. Metropolitan Mar Jacobus (Herford) consecrated by Metropolitan Mar Basilius, who brings the Chaldean-Syrian Church into Europe and England.
**,+1904 A.D. Metropolitan Jacobus consecrated his first Coadjutor and established the Chaldean-Syrian Church of the East (the Swiss-German Branch) of the Church in Europe. This branch was created autocephalous.
1905 A.D. Syrian Christian manuscripts found in Kao-ch’ang in Turfan, North West of China. Works date back to 9th-12th centuries.
*1908 A.D. Metropolitan Mar Thimotheus reaches Trichur. During his reign, this Metropolitan destroyed all the Icons in all of the Church of the East in India, to make India identical in practise to the Assyrian Church.
*1920 A.D. Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII becomes the Patriarch at age 12 years old.
*1925 A.D. Metropolitan Mar Jacobus creates the 2nd branch of the Chaldean-Syrian Church of the East (the British Branch) in England by the consecration of Bishop Mar Paulus.
+1934 A.D. Metropolitan Mar Johann and the Synod of Bishops of the Chaldean-Syrian Church of the East (the Swiss-German Branch) consecrated Metropolitan Dr. Mar David of Edessa, O.H.S. as the Missionary Metropolitan to the United States, established this Missionary Metropolinate to be “The Province of the Americas and the Far East,” and established this Province to be autocephalous under Metropolitan Dr. Mar David.
+1936 A.D. Metropolitan Dr. Mar David, whose earned doctorate was in ancient biblical languages, had translated the Quiddisha Qurbana (Liturgy of Mar Mari & Addai, Theodorius, and Nestorius) from the Aramaic sources into English from the original sources contained in the British University System. The Metropolitan permitted the English translations to be utilised on a regular basis but the Aramaic Liturgies must be utilised during Holy Week. He permitted each parish to make this decision concerning the language to be utilised on the regular usage in their respective parishes.
+1937 A.D. The Metropolitan Dr. Mar David permits any parish which enters this jurisdiction utilising the Gregorian Eastern Rite Calendar to continue to utilise this calendar, in place of the mandated Julian Calendar.
+1940 A.D. Because of World War II, Metropolitan Dr. Mar David opened this jurisdiction to permitting the Coptic, Syrian, and other Eastern Orthodox Christians to receive the Holy Mysteries, because of a lack of their own respective clergy (priests and bishops). Once the War was over and there were their own priests and bishops arrived for these other Orthodox Christians, Metropolitan Dr. Mar David encourages tem to return to their own various jurisdictions. Approximately, 35% of these Christians chose to remain under this jurisdiction. The Metropolitan did not permit any type of proselytising evangelism to occur to attempt to persuade any Orthodox Christian attending and receiving the Holy Mysteries to switch jurisdictions.
+1947 A.D. Metropolitan Dr. Mar David, O.H.S. entered what is now called the “Charismatic Renewal.”
+1950 A.D. Metropolitan Dr. Mar David of Edessa, O.H.S. and the Synod of Bishops mandated the Quiddisha Qurbana (the Holy Liturgy and all the other Holy Mysteries (Sacraments) be in the vernacular of the people in each country within the Province. The approved vernacular must be issued by the Office of the Metropolitan See. . The Aramaic Liturgy was mandated to be utilised during Holy Week. The Revised Julian Calendar is accepted for use within this jurisdiction. The calendar determination shall be made for each vicar-diocese and parishes by their respective members.
+1952 A.D. Metropolitan Dr. Mar David of Edessa, O.H.S. issues Ukase 103: the attire of our clergy should follow the traditions of the Orthodox Church, i.e.: cassocks, Ryassa, head attire and not of the Assyrian Church, except bishops may utilise the Chaldean Turban. This occurred after the Metropolitan had met with His Holiness, Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun; the Metropolitan did not want any confusion between the Assyrian Church and or own jurisdiction. All liturgical vestments for all the ranks of the clergy remained Chaldean-Syrian as known and received from the mother church. The Synod of Bishops accepted the spirit of faith and order contained within the decrees of the First Seven Ecumenical Councils which were not in conflict with the Holy Scriptures, Traditions, and Canon Laws (Synodus) of the Church.
+1961 A.D.

Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII visits India. First Assyrian Patriarch to ever visit India. He attempted to bring the autocephalous Church of India under his direct patriarchal control, through civil law suits. Eventually, the Patriarch lost all of his law suits. The Church in India begins its reorganisation to prevent such occurrences from happening in the future. The Church in India begins to refer to itself as the “Chaldean-Syrian Church in India” and/or the “Chaldean-Syrian Church of the East in India.”

+1964 A.D. Patriarch Mar Shimun XXIII adopted the Western (Gregorian) Calendar. First attempt of the Patriarch to resign in order to marry.
+1968 A.D. Metropolitan Mar Thoma, the Metropolitan of India, elected Patriarch in Baghdad. (120th Patriarch). He consecrated Metropolitan Dr. Mar Aprem as his successor in India and Mar Poulose as Episcopa for India. Return of the Old Calendar.
+1969 A.D. Patriarch Mar Thoma dies.  Patriarch Mar Addai II becomes the 121st Patriarch.
+1972 A.D. Metropolitan Dr. Mar David of Edessa dies. Metropolitan Dr. Mar Apriam of Edessa, O.S.A. is chosen as his successor.
+1974 A.D. Metropolitan Dr. Mar Apriam resigned. Coadjutor Metropolitan with the Right of Succession, Dr. Mar Mikhael of Edessa, O.S.J. assumed the Office of the Metropolitan.
+1975 A.D.

Retired/Resigned Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII assassinated in San Jose, California.  He was the last heredity patriarch for the Assyrian Church of the East (Holy Apostolic-Assyrian Catholic Church of the East.

+1976 A.D. A second or rival patriarch is elected in England: Patriarch Mar Dinkha (new calendar); a schism occurs. India remained under Patriarch Mar Addai until 1995-96.
+1978 A.D. First visit to our office by clergy from the Mar Dinkha IV’s jurisdiction, attempting to coerce us into submitting our jurisdiction to be under Patriarch Mar Dinkha. First threats of intimidation, slander, and libel made against this jurisdiction by these clergymen.
*1976-90s Both Patriarchs, as well as Metropolitan Dr. Mar Aprem of India (then under Patriarch Mar Addai) were formally received at the Vatican with Pope John Paul II.
1994 A.D. Declaration of “The Common Christological Declaration between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of the East” was signed in Rome. The theology of the Church of the East is considered Orthodox. The Church of the East used the terminology of “The Mother of Christ our God and Saviour” to describe the Virgin Mary while the Roman Catholic utilised “The Mother of God.”
+1996 A.D.

Bishop Mar Bawai Soro, the ecumenical officer of the Assyrian Church of the East begins his major slander and libel campaign to force us to surrender our autocephalous status and submit to Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV. (This bishop later was excommunicated and defrocked by Patriarch Mar Dinkha for his intrigues to force Mar Dinkha to join Rome; he further created a schism and brought three (3) parishes with him as he joined the Catholic Chaldean Church under Rome.) This bishop was also responsible for the 3rd assassination attempt against Metropolitan Dr. Mar Mikhael of Edessa, O.S.J. by the Assyrians, after our communication with this bishop and the Patriarch Mar Dinkha. This jurisdiction (the 3rd Canonical Branch of the Church of the East) remains autocephalous.

2001 A.D. Intercommunion between the Catholic Chaldean Church under Rome and the Church of the East established by a signed agreement in writing by the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church and Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV, and approved by Pope John Paul II. Canon 844, Section 3, of the Roman Catholic Church permitted members of the Polish National Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, and the Church of the East to receive the Eucharist in the Roman Church. The Roman Catholic Church did not object to the reception of Holy Communion and other Sacraments by these Christians of these Churches (Separated Brethren). By order of the United States National Conference of (Roman) Catholic Bishops, these canons (844 sections 3 and 4) are mandated to be included in all Missalettes to disseminate this information.
+2006 A.D. Metropolitan Dr. Mar Mikhael of Edessa, O.S.J., as the Primate (Chief Hierarch) established the Missionary Diocese of the Philippines. The Province is now located within 4 continents.
+2009 A.D. The Missionary Diocese of the Philippines (2 parishes) to be supervised by Chor-episcopa Josef until a missionary vicar-bishop can be trained and consecrated.

 * from the various books written by His Grace, Metropolitan Dr. Mar Aprem in India.
** from “The Bishops at Large” by Peter F. Anson, 1964. Page 141
 + inserts from this jurisdiction’s church history.

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